1. Home
  2. Google Sheet
  3. Filtration performance of common household materials for manufacturing homemade masks

Filtration performance of common household materials for manufacturing homemade masks

This spreadsheet shows the filtration performance of medical and non-medical materials. The filtration performance generally includes two aspects: filtration efficiency and pressure drop;

coronavirus, masks, data

Note: 1. This spreadsheet shows the filtration performance of medical and non-medical materials. The filtration performance generally includes two aspects: filtration efficiency and pressure drop;

2. The filtration efficiency (together with standard deviation) was measured at 0.3 micrometer with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI 3936), and the test aerosols (NaCl) were generated by a constant output atomizer (TSI 3076). The reason we measure 0.3 micrometer particles is that they are typically the most difficult to remove by filtration. More information can be found from the video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpbJFk311Lw

3. The pressure drop is the flow resistance through the filter materials. It is directly related to the breathability of the material - the higher the pressure drop, the more difficult it is to breathe;

4. We tested the filtration efficiency and pressure drop under different "face velocities" - 9 cm/s, 15 cm/s, 23 cm/s. This is to consider the situation where people may cut these filter materials as discs to insert in their own respirators (e.g. a 3D printed one: https://governmentciomedia.com/fda-approves-first-3d-printed-mask-covid-19-support). Generally, an adult will breathe with a flow rate of 60 liters per minute. So, by using a mask area of 111 cm^2 (the typical area of a face mask), we will have a face velocity of 9 cm/s. Some homemade respirators may have a smaller mask area, or people may use hand to further press the filter materials around the nose and mouth, resulting in a smaller mask area.

5. A smaller the mask area leads to a higher the face velocity, a higher the pressure drop (flow resistance), and generally a lower the filtration efficiency

6. For fabric materials, we also listed the GSM (grams per square meter) as a reference.

Thanks to: PMTL: Weixing Hao; Missouri S&T: Drs. Joel Burken, Hongyan Ma, Chris Ramsay, Jennifer Nixon, Missouri S&T 3D printing team; Phelps-Maries County Health Department;

Linsey Marr (Virginia Tech), Maya Trotz (USF), Karl Haro von Mogel (Biofortified), Pratim Biswas (WUStL)

Contact: Yang Wang ([email protected]); Please feel free to use the data for non-profit purposes.

Citing the data: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113582 Weixing Hao, Andrew Parasch, Stephen Williams, Jiayu Li, Hongyan Ma, Joel Burken, Yang Wang (2020), International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 229: 113582. ISSN 1438-4639

Website: https://yangwangpmtl.wordpress.com/

9 cm/s 15 cm/s 23 cm/s 9 cm/s 15 cm/s 23 cm/s

Filter type Filter rating (MPR,MERV,Other) GSM # of layers % of 0.3 micron particles removed pressure drop (kpa)

Grams per Square Meter 111 cm^2 mask area Standard Dev 67 cm^2 mask area Standard Dev 43 cm^2 mask area Standard Dev 111 cm^2 mask area 67 cm^2 mask area 43 cm^2 mask area

3/26 1 N95 1 98.16% 0.49% 95.32% 1.42% 94.39% 0.97% 0.1 0.3 0.5

2 3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter 1900 MPR, MERV 12 https://www.lowes.com/pd/Filtrete-1900-MPR-Maximum-Allergen-Common-20-in-x-25-in-x-1-in-Actual-19-6-in-x-24-7-in-x-0-7810-in-Electrostatic-Pleated-Air-Filter/3130397 1 89.10% 1.47% 55.38% 1.52% 58.51% 1.30% 0.1 0.5 0.6

3 3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter 1900 MPR, MERV 12 2 93.83% 2.41% 85.95% 2.45% 86.48% 2.51% 0.3 0.5 0.6

4 3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter 1900 MPR, MERV 12 3 98.88% N/A 94.75% N/A 96.32% N/A 0.2 0.6 0.9

8 VACCUM BAG (Hoover, model unknown) 1 99.58% 0.73% 99.48% 0.71% 99.72% 0.71% 0.4 1.2 1.9

9 Natural Brew Coffee Filter 3 24.10% 2.30% 40.10% 7.40% 43.91% 6.20% 0.5 1.1 2

10 Brew Rite Coffee Filter 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A 50.28% 6.20% 0.5 1.1 2

3/27

11 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 1 44.17% 9.34% 35.71% 9.49% 32.62% 9.43% 0.1 0.1 0.5

12 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 2 75.80% 2.46% 67.72% 2.37% 58.24% 2.49% 0.3 0.2 0.3

13 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 3 81.69% N/A 80.78% N/A 84.56% N/A 0.2 0.2 0.4

14 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 4 89.41% 0.76% 86.84% 5.90% 82.51% 2.35% 0.1 0.2 0.4

15 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 5 92.59% N/A 88.63% N/A 87.41% N/A 0.1 0.2 0.4

16 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 6 94.75% N/A 91.81% N/A 90.29% N/A 0.1 0.3 0.5

17 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 7 96.74% N/A 93.72% N/A 93.80% N/A 0.2 0.3 0.3

18 BestAir filter 3000 MPR, MERV 13 8 98.04% 2.04% 95.29% 2.05% 94.38% 2.10% 0.1 0.3 0.4

19 API Activated carbon (grinded fine) + 1 layer HEPA HEPA used: 1900 MPR, MERV 12 N/A N/A N/A N/A 90.16% 0.67% N/A N/A 1.9

20 API Activated carbon (coarse) + 1 layer HEPA HEPA used: 1900 MPR, MERV 12 N/A N/A N/A N/A 79.93% 3.00% N/A N/A 1.4

3/29 21 3M Filtrete-Smart Air filter 2500 MPR 1 79.81% 3.33% 79.62% 3.58% 73.46% 3.50% 0.1 0.2 0.4

22 3M Filtrete-Smart Air filter 2500 MPR 2 96.46% 2.54% 95.47% 2.52% 92.04% 2.60% 0.2 0.5 0.6

23 3M Filtrete-Smart Air filter 2500 MPR 3 99.28% N/A 98.50% N/A 97.55% N/A 0.3 0.5 0.7

24 3M Filtrete-Smart Air filter 2500 MPR 4 99.72% 0.76% 99.49% 0.76% 98.97% 0.74% 0.3 0.5 0.8

4/1 25 Bandana (100% cotton) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 28.4884 1 7.82% 12.15% N/A N/A 7.97% 12.00% 0 0.3 0.2

26 Bandana (100% cotton) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 2 18.20% 6.77% N/A N/A 7.76% 7.00% 0 0.2 0.2

27 Bandana (100% cotton) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 3 18.59% N/A N/A N/A 7.08% N/A 0.1 0.3 0.2

28 Bandana (100% cotton) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 4 19.54% 5.37% N/A N/A 10.19% 5.24% 0.1 0.3 0.4

29 Scarf (woolen yarn) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1 30.814 1 19.12% 11.23% N/A N/A 24.19% 11.23% 0 0.2 0.2

30 Scarf (woolen yarn) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1 2 21.27% 5.76% N/A N/A 23.85% 6.32% 0.1 0.2 0.3

31 Scarf (woolen yarn) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1 3 25.07% N/A N/A N/A 23.95% N/A 0.1 0.3 0.3

32 Scarf (woolen yarn) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1 4 48.81% 3.85% N/A N/A 28.07% 3.84% 0.1 0.3 0.3

33 pillowcase thread 400 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 32.4593 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.51% 8.12% 0.2 0.3 0.3

34 pillowcase thread 400 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A 13.49% 6.39% 0.2 0.3 0.5

35 pillowcase thread 400 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 3 18.59% N/A 14.09% N/A 10.28% N/A 0.1 0.4 0.5

36 pillowcase thread 400 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 4 25.25% 5.20% 27.60% 5.47% 19.92% 5.37% 0.2 0.4 0.5

37 pillowcase thread 600 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 35.0756 1 21.00% 10.31% 19.14% 9.85% 18.41% 10.15% 0.3 0.6 1.7

38 pillowcase thread 600 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 2 22.01% 8.38% 40.67% 8.16% 38.19% 8.29% 0.5 0.9 1.3

39 pillowcase thread 600 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 3 41.40% N/A 47.53% N/A 48.44% N/A 0.7 1.4 1.8

40 pillowcase thread 600 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 4 58.45% 6.60% 57.79% 2.50% 56.58% 12.12% 1 1.6 2.2

4/4 41 Surgical mask 78.47% 5.63% 74.57% 5.47% 68.95% 5.50% 0.1 0.3 0.4

42 N95 from SDELC 98.66% N/A 96.07% N/A 91.04% 0.70% 0.2 0.5 0.6

43 KN95-NIDI KN95 is the Chinese standard of N95 94.50% 0.71% 95.49% 0.70% 90.08% N/A 0.2 0.3 0.5

44 KN95-JINJIANG KN95 is the Chinese standard of N95 99.86% 0.39% 98.75% 0.39% 97.10% 0.40% 0.3 0.4 0.6

4/6 52 thread 1000 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 45.1744 1 15.47% 10.34% N/A N/A 16.99% 10.50% 0.2 0.5 1

53 thread 1000 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 2 31.28% 8.73% 24.23% 8.33% 46.55% 8.60% 0.5 0.9 1.4

54 thread 1000 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 3 50.82% N/A 39.37% N/A 55.05% N/A 0.8 1.4 1.6

55 thread 1000 https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 4 55.09% 6.84% 63.46% 6.76% 62.33% 7.00% 1.1 1.6 2.1

4/13

56 Household Air Filter MERV 13 1 44.92% 3.25% 33.41% 8.16% 28.34% 4.59% 0.1 0.2 0.5

57 Household Air Filter MERV 13 2 67.71% 1.22% 60.42% 3.23% 49.89% 1.53% 0.1 0.2 0.4

58 Household Air Filter MERV 13 3 81.56% 1.53% 74.15% 5.47% 62.06% 0.69% 0.1 0.2 0.4

59 Household Air Filter MERV 13 4 88.95% 0.50% 82.67% 1.21% 71.19% 1.01% 0.1 0.2 0.4

4/17

60 30# coffee filter paper 12.6628 1 6.66% 4.82% 22.88% 2.44% 18.77% 4.12% 0.3 0.5 1.2

61 30# coffee filter paper 2 14.93% 1.38% 30.53% 2.76% 35.55% 2.71% 0.5 0.6 1.5

62 shop towels ToolBox 19.7791 1 27.21% 1.20% 33.48% 2.59% 34.15% 2.84% 0.2 0.5 1.4

63 shop towels ToolBox 2 45.75% 0.93% 48.92% 1.92% 50.01% 2.55% 0.3 0.9 1.5

64 shop towels ToolBox 3 58.95% 1.06% 60.13% 1.57% 64.57% 1.89% 0.4 1 1.8

65 shop towels ToolBox 4 68.42% 0.55% 70.90% 0.75% 72.35% 1.01% 0.5 1.3 2.1

4/18

66 knit 1 60% co

Filtration performance of common household materials for manufacturing homemade masks
Info
Tags Coronavirus, Masks, Data
Type Google Sheet
Published 24/10/2020, 09:17:47

Resources

FAQs on Protecting Yourself from Aerosol Transmission
masks-research